By M. Şükrü Hanioğlu
On the flip of the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire straddled 3 continents and encompassed impressive ethnic and cultural variety one of the predicted thirty million humans residing inside of its borders. It was once possibly the main cosmopolitan kingdom within the world--and potentially the main unstable. a quick heritage of the past due Ottoman Empire now provides students and normal readers a concise heritage of the overdue empire among 1789 and 1918, turbulent years marked by way of awesome social switch. relocating prior typical remedies of the topic, M. Skr Hanioglu emphasizes large old traits and approaches greater than unmarried occasions. He examines the imperial fight to centralize amid strong competition from neighborhood rulers, nationalist and different teams, and overseas powers. He appears to be like heavily on the socioeconomic alterations this fight wrought and addresses the Ottoman reaction to the demanding situations of modernity. Hanioglu exhibits how this historical past isn't just necessary to comprehending sleek Turkey, yet is critical to the histories of Europe and the realm. He brings Ottoman society marvelously to lifestyles in all its facets--cultural, diplomatic, highbrow, literary, army, and political--and he mines imperial files and different records from the interval to explain it because it truly used to be, now not because it has been portrayed in postimperial nationalist narratives. a short background of the overdue Ottoman Empire is a must-read for an individual looking to comprehend the legacy left during this empire's ruins--a legacy the area nonetheless grapples with this day.
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Extra info for A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire
12 Stanford J. Shaw, The Financial and Administrative Organization and Development of Ottoman Egypt, 1517–1798 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962), p. 348. 13 Cengiz Orhonlu, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun Güney Siyaseti: Habeş Eyaleti (Istanbul: Edebiyat Fakültesi Yayınları, 1974), pp. 37ff. 14 [John Lewis Burckhardt], Johann Ludwig Burckhardt’s Reisen in Nubien (Weimar: Landes-Industrie-Comptoirs, 1820), pp. 608–13. indd 11 8/23/2007 8:15:57 PM 12 Chapter One of the Hijāz was essential for the legitimacy of the Ottoman sultans who, unable to trace their lineage back to the Prophet Muhammad, based their claim to the Caliphate on their custodianship of the Two Holy Sanctuaries of Mecca and Medina.
51 Genç, Devlet ve Ekonomi, p. 89. indd 23 8/23/2007 8:16:00 PM 24 Chapter One transportation and development. Although the state invested heavily in military-related industries, such as silk and wool for the production of sailcloth for the navy, the overall picture from the mid-eighteenth century onward was one of stagnation and decline relative to Europe. 52 Debasement remained the mainstay of Ottoman monetary policy. In the late seventeenth century an experiment with minting cheaper copper coins along with the traditional silver proved unsuccessful, primarily because provincial suspicion of the new coinage precipitated the flight of gold and silver to the periphery and the accumulation of copper in the cities.
Watches, quadrants, and hourglasses were commonplace, supplementing state-sponsored mechanisms of timekeeping. 63 The inventories of the first five were recorded in Hicrî 1164 (1750–51), while those of the others were registered in Hicrî 1215 (1800–1801). In the Ottoman system, the total worth of a given estate was equal to the aggregated worth of all possessions of the deceased, including physical belongings, property, cash savings, loans to other individuals, and slaves and concubines. This was different from the total 62 Specifically, the Covenant of the Second Caliph