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By Olga Tellegen-Couperus

Crucial production of the Romans used to be their legislation. during this booklet, Dr Tellegen-Couperus discusses the way the Roman jurists created and constructed legislations and how within which Roman legislations has come right down to us. particular consciousness is given to questions equivalent to `who have been the jurists and their legislations colleges' and to the shut connection among jurists and the politics in their time.

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2. THE TERRITORY In the period between 367 and 27 BC Rome gained control of the entire Mediterranean area. At the end of this period a large part of the world as far as it was known at the time was under Roman rule. 1. The conquest of Italy When in 367 BC the Romans changed the organisation of the state by means of the leges Lidniae Sextiae and thereby practically put an end to the conflicts between patricians and plebeians, they were able to concentrate once more on expansion. First of all, with the help of the Samnites the Romans defeated the Latin league which had been enviously watching the growing power of Rome and had demanded greater political power in the alliance; the alliance was dissolved and in 338 BC Latium came completely under Roman domination.

By continually violating the established constitutional procedure and by basing his actions on the will of the people he gave the impression that he was trying to acquire power for himself. When he tried to get reelected as a tribune, although that too was against the regulations, he was murdered by a number of senators. His death, however, did not mean the end of the political unrest. Ten years later Tiberius’ brother Gaius Gracchus tried to continue the reforms. He attempted to win the support of the equites by promising to strengthen their position vis-à-vis the senators.

One of the traditional powers of the tribunes was the right to invalidate the actions taken by magistrates and other tribunes. The right of intercession turned out to be a powerful weapon in the political turmoil of the last 100 years of the republic, particularly because among the ten tribunes there was always bound to be at least one who was closely linked to the senate. Apart from a short period under Sulla, the tribunate continued well into the principate. It even formed one of the pillars on which the first emperors based their power.

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