By W. B. Hugo, J. B. Stenlake
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The supply and balance of solid nutrients. 2. The supply of gaseous nutrients, for example of oxygen, carbon dioxide or nitrogen. 3. Hydrogen ion concentration. 4. Temperature. 5. Osmotic pressure. 6. The presence of water. BACTERIAL GROWTH The Measurement of Bacterial Growth The quantitative effect of the many variables mentioned above and to be considered below can be assessed only when the extent of bacterial growth can be measured. There are four main methods of measuring bacterial growth: 1.
Examples of essential metals (anions) include Na + , K+, Cu++, Mg++, Ca + + , Zn++, V++, Mn++, Fe + + , C o + + and essential cations include Cl~, S0 4 —, again different species having different requirements for optimum growth. In addition to the essential nutritional requirements listed above, there must be present at least one constituent which can be metabolised and which during metabolism provides energy for growth to occur. Examples of energy-yielding reactions will be considered in a later section.
This substance, CH 2 SHCOOH, has been used successfully as an additive to nutrient broths for the cultivation and detection of anaerobes since 1926. Sodium sulphide had been used for the same purpose eight years earlier. A medium containing thioglycollic acid and other ingredients was introduced by Brewer in 1940 for the purpose of detecting both aerobes and anaerobes primarily for use in testing certain pharmaceutical products for absence of bacterial contamination (sterility tests). Since the original recipe by Brewer, other formulae have been tried; a typical example is given below: Meat extract 1Ό g Yeast extract 20g Peptone 50 g Glucose 5Ό g Sodium chloride 5Ό g Sodium thioglycollate 1 -0 g Méthylène blue 0002 g Agar 0-5 g Water to 1,000 ml This consists of a nutrient broth (first five ingredients), the reducing agent (thioglycollic acid), an indicator of the extent of reduction (méthylène blue) and sufficient agar, 0Ό5 per cent, to increase the viscosity of the medium and reduce the tendency for air to diffuse into the medium.