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1. g. when it is not possible to radiograph the entire inspected object as in the case of extended or large structures. Gamma-rays are usually employed because of their good penetrability. However‚ alpha- and beta-particles are also used. Beta-particles were utilized for the detection of faults in conventional explosive fuses using a beta-source [302]‚ while an accelerated (2 MeV) and collimated alpha-particles‚ directed close to the axis and planes of a crystal‚ were used to examine lattice damage by monitoring the backscattering of the particles.

This process is known as thin-layer involves the activation (TLA) [277]. 9%). 238 MeV; it is also a positron emitter that can be monitored by the 511 keV gamma-rays associated with positron annihilation. This TLA process has been used in a number of corrosion studies involving the placement of activated coupons into flow components through specially designed gland systems [277]. Implantation of radioactive ions‚ such as and into a surface allows sensitive wear measurements by monitoring the worn away gamma activity of the implanted radioisotope [293].

A physician also attempts to diagnose a disease or a condition via general “inspection” of the patient for signs and symptoms. Patients are also connected to devices to monitor their vital signs. Quantitative measurements (“gauging”) of body parameters, such as blood pressure, body temperature, heart-beat rate, etc. also assist the physician in making a diagnosis. A general practitioner, or a medical specialist, may also order blood tests or bioassay for elemental or composition “analysis”. Medical doctors also acquire radiological, ultrasonic or magnetic-resonance “images” to facilitate the diagnosis process.

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