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By Pelin Ayan Musil (auth.)

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There were two major reasons for this change: an important exogenous shock on the Turkish political system—the military memorandum in 1971—as well as the nature of the allocation of power sources within the party organization. 13 Yet they were easily eliminated from the party; due to the authoritarian leadership style of İnönü. 14 The faction supporting the secretary general Ecevit’s position against the newly established government, soon gained power against Inönü’s faction and led to this leadership change.

54 Therefore, they create a new typology of parties inclusive of the cases drawn from third-wave democracies. The main distinction within this typology is based on the “organizationally thick” and “organizationally thin” parties. They argue that the origin of the “organizationally thin” parties that show a great deal of authoritarian features and low degree of party membership was the contingent effect of an illiterate, rural, and “politically unmobilized” segment of the society. 55 Rustow, comparing the Middle Eastern parties with the European cases, stresses a common ground on what was experienced in all subregions of Europe: all in all, it was a struggle between the representative assemblies and the royal power, and the former was what was missing in the Middle East region’s path to democracy: Representation came to be considered a general civic right rather than a corporate class privilege [in Europe], and the partisan contest spilled over EXISTING EXPLANATIONS 23 from the chambers of the legislature to the public at large.

One can exercise power over others only by satisfying their needs and expectations; one thereby paradoxically submits oneself to their power. 82 Despite Panebianco’s analysis, it is surprising to see that power is treated as something owned by the party elite in authoritarian party structures. There is a need to treat it as a relational phenomenon and pay attention to the internal governance processes between the party leaders and the local activists. 1 Turkey is one of the countries where political leaders have played a paramount influence in shaping the societal, political, and economic evolution of a country in its path to democracy.

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