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By Nader Hassanzadeh

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Prescott,2006 47 Bacterial motility         The flagellum is a rigid structure and rotates like a propeller. Rings in the basal body rotate relative to each other causing the flagella to turn. Flagella can rotate: Clockwise (CW): In peritrichous cells, flagella then become limp, cell tumbles or twiddle. Countercloskwise (CCW): Flagellar bundle then becomes rigid, cell runs. Rotor is always spinning one direction or other Some bacteria are motile w/o flagella. Gliding motility: Depends upon contact with a solid surface, it moves slowly across surfaces, involves sulfurcontaining lipids.

E. g. in Spiroplasma cells).  Membrane-bound ribbon following the shortest helical line on the cellular coil, and composed of several well-ordered fibrils. Bové and Garnier,2003 31 A. Structures External to the Cell Wall     Flagella Fimbriae and Pili Glycocalyx (EPS) LPS 32 Flagella Pili & Fimbriae 33 Flagella Bacteria      Flagella can be thought of as little semi-rigid whips that are free at one end and attached to a cell at the other. The diameter of a flagellum is thin, 20 nm, and long with some having a length 10 times the diameter of cell.

Due to their small diameter, flagella cannot be seen in the light microscope unless a special stain is applied. If a flagellum is cut off it will regenerate until reaches a maximum length. As this occurs the growth is not from base, but from tip. The filament is hollow and subunits travel through the filament and self-assemble at the end. Paustain,2001 34 Flagella Prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes       Possess simple flagella. Composed of single flagellin fiber. Lack 9+2 structure of eukaryotic flagella and cilia.

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