Download Becker USMLE Step 1 Immunology, Microbiology Version 1.3 by Cari Sloma Mary Ruebush PDF

By Cari Sloma Mary Ruebush

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Extra resources for Becker USMLE Step 1 Immunology, Microbiology Version 1.3

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Il-l, l l - 12, ll-23, chemokines ROS, NO, lysosomal -+ enzymes 1 Pathologic inflammation Microbicidal actions: phagocytosis and killing of many bacteria and fungi A. 0 Macrophage Subpopulations ~ OeVry/ Becker Educational Development Corp. All r ights reserved. Chapter S- 4 I m munology Chapter 5 • Processing and Presentation of Antigens Activation ofT Helper Cells The presentation of MHC 2-peptide complexes on APCs to antigenspecific, naive CD4+ T lymphocytes begins the process of Th cell activation in the secondary lymphoid organs.

Because the cell has two copies of each chromosome, failure to make a functional product with the first chromosome set causes that one to be inactivated, and a second attempt is undertaken with the complementary set. If the attempt at rearrangement is successful with the first chromosome on which it is undertaken, the complementary set is inactivated. • On each lymphocyte, randomly, only one chromosomal product is expressed, a trait referred to as allelic exclusion . • Because all heavy chain genes are on a single chromosome, and light chain genes are on two separate chromosomes, each cell has two chances to make a functional heavy chain and four chances to make a functional light chain.

It is estimated that every lymphocyte checks into every lymph node in the body on average once a day, and passes through the spleen on average every other day. This surprising rate of lymphocyte traffic makes surveillance of the entire multicellular organism possible. If a mature, naive lymphocyte meets its cognate antigen as it passes through one of these organs, it stops there and becomes activated. Activation causes the production of clones of identical lymphocytes - this is why lymphadenopathy is a normal sequela of any immune response.

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