By Noboru Okuda, Katsutoshi Watanabe, Kayoko Fukumori, Shin-ichi Nakano, Takefumi Nakazawa
This e-book offers the most recent subject matters in ecological and evolutionary learn on aquatic biodiversity from micro organism to fishes, with distinctive connection with Lake Biwa, an historic lake in western Japan. With a geological background of four million years, Lake Biwa is the 3rd oldest lake on this planet. it truly is thought of a biodiversity hotspot, the place 1,769 aquatic species together with sixty one endemics are recorded, delivering a unprecedented chance to check the evolutionary diversification of aquatic biota and its ecological outcomes. the 1st bankruptcy introduces the evolutionary heritage of biodiversity, in particular of fish during this lake. within the moment bankruptcy, a few examples of trophic polymorphism in fish are defined. Fish are keystone predators in lake ecosystems, and so they could be a significant driving force for changing organic groups via their top-down trophic cascading results. a superb laboratory scan is gifted, demonstrating that practical range of fish feeding morphology alters meals internet houses of plankton prey groups. The 3rd bankruptcy makes a speciality of aquatic microbes, whose abundance and variety can also be stimulated via the variety of fish via top-down trophic cascades. Aquatic microbes could have a powerful impression on atmosphere functioning in lakes, and during this bankruptcy, the most recent molecular concepts used to envision genetic and practical variety of microbial groups are brought. the ultimate bankruptcy offers theoretical frameworks for predicting how biodiversity has the aptitude to manage the prevalence and depth of human-induced regime shifts. whereas respecting the valuable nature of biodiversity in lakes, it truly is necessary to remember that sleek human actions have introduced a trouble of biodiversity loss in lakes around the globe. all through this e-book, readers will study why biodiversity has to be conserved in any respect degrees, from genes to ecosystems.
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Extra info for Biodiversity in Aquatic Systems and Environments: Lake Biwa
Such a situation will place the landlocked alewives under strong directional selection for feeding on small-bodied zooplankton, driving the adaptive evolution of the landlocked morph from an anadromous ancestor (Palkovacs and Post 2008). In addition, sporadic occurrences of physical barriers to fish migration between freshwater and marine habitats promotes the parallel evolution of landlocked morphs independently in different locations, resulting in spatio-temporal heterogeneity in the geographic distribution of feeding traits within the species (Palkovacs et al.
Similar to other ancient lakes created by tectonic movements, Lake Biwa is characterized by the development of deep pelagic habitats, which support many pelagic fishes (Okuda et al. 2012). Recent molecular techniques have revealed that some endemic fishes, which have adapted to pelagic environments, are derived from littoral or fluvial ancestral species (see Chap. 1). Many of these pelagic species share adaptive traits, such as a slender body and narrow gill raker spacing, which are advantageous to inhabiting pelagic waters.
Harmon et al. , planktivorous) morphs from a generalist ancestor. To examine the effects of evolutionary diversification of the threespine sticklebacks on ecosystem properties, they manipulated a combination of two specialist morphs or one generalist ancestor in large tanks to artificially simulate pond ecosystems including the plankton and benthos communities. 6 Predator Diversity and Ecosystem Functioning 37 and ecosystem processes such as primary productivity and water chemistry. One of the more remarkable outcomes was that they could detect synergistic effects of the predators’ adaptive diversification on the pond ecosystems as well as differential effects of each morph, by comparing ecosystem consequences between simple and diverse feeding functions.