By Dr. Matthias Scherge, Dr. Stanislav S. Gorb (auth.)
Many of the most important demanding situations dealing with latest engineering technology are concerning miniaturization. during this box, very important growth should be made via learning Nature's ideas: bugs and different dwelling creatures have solved a few of the comparable difficulties in the course of their evolution. organic micro- and nanotribology goals to assemble information regarding friction, adhesion and put on in such organic structures and to take advantage of this new wisdom, e.g. within the layout of micro-electro- mechanical structures, the advance of novel sorts of monolayer lubrication, the discovery of recent adhesives, and the development of man-made joints. by means of applying a mixture of ways from numerous disciplines -- physics, engineering, tribology, biology, and fabrics technology -- the authors elucidate the rules of a number of biomechanical structures that depend upon frictional surfaces or adhesive secretions to connect components of the physique to each other or to connect organisms to a substrate. This account presents a great place to begin for engineers and physicists operating with organic platforms and for biologists learning friction and adhesion. it's going to additionally function a invaluable advent for graduate scholars coming into this interdisciplinary box of research.
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Extra info for Biological Micro- and Nanotribology: Nature’s Solutions
In these experiments, the authors used the fact that water desorbs as the pressure drops, finally forming a single monolayer or less. The friction force was measured initially in air and subsequently as a function of the total pressure of the vacuum system. The ball and the flat sample were cleaned by rinsing in isopropanol and methanol (5 minutes) followed by a two-minute dip in distilled water. 2 nm) this surface is terminated by OR groups, which attract water molecules [203,204]. The surface is charged by adsorbed ions and by charges moving into the oxide film .
C E-< E SO tI: --~ ..... Q) ..... 8 10-6 / 10-2 10 -1 10 ~ 10° Pres ure [mbar] Fig. 23. Water film thickness measured by STM in the spectroscopy mode as a function of the pressure in the vacuum chamber. The approaching STM tip experiences an ionization current upon contact with the water film. The distance between the onset of the current and the exponential increase due to the contact with the solid is interpreted as water film thickness. film is thick the frictional behavior appears to be liquid-like.
B) For a coverage of a few monolayers the sliding behavior changes from liquid-like to solid-like. (c) When the water film is reduced to one monolayer the friction is low and almost fluctuation-free. 5 Lubrication 39 b) a) Fig. 20. (a) Water molecule. (b) Tetrahedral structure formed by water molecules. certain degree of order can be found in water resting in an equilibrium state, where hexagonal structures - similar to ice [110,154-157] - were observed. These structures are not stable and vanish as the temperature increases.