By Deborah A. Rosen
The First Seminole battle of 1816–1818 performed a severe position in shaping how the U.S. demarcated its spatial and criminal limitations in the course of the early years of the republic. Rooted in notions of yankee exceptionalism, appear future, and racism, the criminal framework that emerged from the warfare laid the foundation for the Monroe Doctrine, the Dred Scott determination, and U.S. westward growth over the process the 19th century, as Deborah Rosen explains in Border Law.
When basic Andrew Jackson’s troops invaded Spanish-ruled Florida within the past due 1810s, they seized forts, destroyed cities, and captured or killed Spaniards, Britons, Creeks, Seminoles, and African-descended humans. As Rosen exhibits, american citizens vigorously debated those competitive activities and raised urgent questions on the rights of wartime prisoners, using army tribunals, the character of sovereignty, the principles for working throughout territorial borders, the validity of preemptive moves, and the position of race in selecting felony rights. Proponents of Jackson’s Florida campaigns claimed a spot for the USA as a member of the ecu diplomatic neighborhood whereas whilst announcing a neighborhood sphere of impression and new ideas concerning the software of overseas law.
American justifications for the incursions, which allotted rights alongside racial strains and allowed large leeway for extraterritorial motion, solid a extra unified nationwide identification and set a precedent for an assertive overseas policy.
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Additional resources for Border Law: The First Seminole War and American Nationhood
Government protested that Spanish officials permitted British agents to instigate blacks and Indians to attack the United States from Florida. S. defense of armed hostilities conducted in the period from 1816 to 1818. Prospect Bluff and Amelia Island While negotiations between the United States and Spain languished in 1816 and 1817, the United States sent troops to deal with two small, isolated areas that were ostensibly within Spanish territory but had been taken over by people deemed to be threatening to the United States.
Jackson’s occupation of Florida gave Adams the leverage he needed to press the Spanish government to conclude treaty negotiations. Although the parties had discussed possible cession of Florida since 1817, Jackson’s actions secured the cession and also helped the United States obtain additional western territory in the final treaty. After Jackson’s occupation of Florida, Adams ratcheted up the United States’ demand: he proposed extending the United States all the way to the Pacific Ocean, not just west to the Mississippi River.
He firmly stated that Spain maintained adequate garrisons in Florida and had always fulfilled its obligations under the treaty with the United States. Onís further said it was the responsibility of the United States to inform the Spanish government if local officials acted wrongfully. In the absence of Border Lawâ•‡ •â•‡ 26 notification, Spain could not act to punish officers who disobeyed the king’s mandate. He enclosed a letter from José Coppinger (governor of East Florida, based in St. Augustine, 1816–1821), in which Coppinger stated that he had observed strict neutrality and adhered to treaty obligations, received no American complaints, denied British officer George Woodbine permission to bring troops to Florida for the purpose of attacking the United States, and urged Seminole chief Boleck to act peacefully with Americans and to turn away fugitive slaves from the United States.