By Alfred S. Evans (auth.)
In front fabric of this publication either a foreword and a preface look. What the content material of a preface may be is easily understood. it's the author's retrospective account of reason, of the labors to complete that reason, and of the content material of the publication that resulted. What a foreword can be is much less seen. so much competently, it really is possibly the short testimony of 1 who is aware the accomplishments of the writer and the scope of the sector and who might direct readers to the publication. On a few foundation, the author is believed to have earned the best to adopt any such job. To adopt the writing of a foreword for thus substantial a researcher, instructor, and student as Alfred Evans could be visible not just as an honor but additionally as a frightening one. My first proposal, truthfully, is this wine wishes no blush and that no foreword is required. As John Rodman Paul Professor of Epidemiology at Yale, Alfred Evans has a longtime recognition within the box of causality. now we have realized from his insights concerning the evolution of causal pondering as epidemiology handed from the period of the germ concept into that of the quest for explanations of power noncontagious illnesses. It was once he who drew recognition to the influence of particular context in that evolution.
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Additional resources for Causation and Disease: A Chronological Journey
His audience included Dr. Bois-Reymond, von Helmholtz, Ehrlich, von Behring, Cohnheim, and "the professor of professors," Rudolf Virchow. Koch's presentation and evidence were so complete that all were convinced, and no one, even Virchow, had any questions or comments. 4). 4. Robert Koch presenting the discovery of the cause of tuberculOSIS before the Berlin Physiological Society, March 28, 1882 (from Knight, 1961). " Koch's findings were published in 1882 in his classic paper "Die Atiologie der Tuberkulose" (Koch, l882a).
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. a From Virus must be a "real" entity: A new virus must be well established by passage in the laboratory in animal or tissue cultures. Origin of virus: the virus must be repeatedly isolated from human specimens and shown not to be a viral contaminant of the experimental animals, cells, or media employed to grow it. Antibody response: An increase in neutralizing or other serologically demonstrable antibodies should regularly result from active infection. Characterization and comparison with known agents: A new virus should be fully characterized and compared with other agents including host and host-cell ranges, pathological lesions, types of cytopathogenic effects, size, susceptibility to physical agents, etc.
In a second paper on tuberculosis presented by Koch in April 1882 (a month after the publication of his first paper) before physicians attending the first congress on internal medicine in Wiesbaden (Koch, 1882b), he explicitly stated his indebtedness to Klebs. " He then described the method by stating the criteria we know today as the postulates (Carter, 1982). Klebs was present at that meeting, and a full translation* of his discussion of Koch's paper is quoted here because of its importance in establishing the priority of Kleb's earlier work.