By Masud Mansuripur
Overlaying a large diversity of basic issues in classical optics and electro-magnetism, this up to date, moment variation comprises thirteen new chapters, which conceal many themes of primary importance in addition to functional significance. the 1st 1/2 the publication offers essentially with the elemental thoughts of optics, whereas the second one part describes how those recommendations can be utilized in various technological purposes. every one bankruptcy is anxious with a unmarried subject, constructing an figuring out of the topic by using diagrams, examples, numerical simulations, and logical arguments. The mathematical content material is saved to a minimal to supply the reader with insightful discussions of optical phenomena
this article covers issues in classical optics within the type of self contained chapters. the 1st half the booklet bargains with easy recommendations of optics, and the second one describes how those options can be utilized in quite a few technological functions. Preface; creation; 1. Abbe's sine ; 2. Fourier optics; three. impact of polarization on diffraction in platforms of excessive numerical aperture; four. Gaussian beam optics; five. Coherent and incoherent imaging; 6. First-order temporal coherence in classical optics; 7. The Van Cittert-Zernike theorem; eight. Partial polarization, Stokes parameters, and the Poincare Sphere; nine. Second-order coherence and the Hanbury Brown - Twiss test; 10. What on this planet are floor plasmons?; eleven. floor plasmon polaritons on steel surfaces; 12. The Faraday effecy; thirteen. The magneto-optical Kerr impact; 14. The Sagnac interferometer; 15. Fabry-Perot etalons in polarized gentle; sixteen. The Ewald-Oseen extinction theorem; 17. Reciprocity in classical Linear optics; 18. Optical pulse compression; 19. The uncertainty precept in classical optics; 20. Omni-directional dielectric mirrors; 21. Optical vortices; 22. Geometric-optical rays, Poynting's vector, and box momenta; 23. Doppler shift, stellar aberration, and convection of sunshine through relocating Media; 24. Diffraction gratings; 25. Diffractive optical components; 26. The talbot influence; 27. a few quirks of overall inner mirrored image; 28. Evanescent coupling; 29. inner and exterior conical refraction; 30. Transmission of sunshine via small elliptical apertures; 31. the tactic of Fox and Li; 32. The beam propagation process; 33. Launching gentle right into a Fiber; 34. The optics of demiconductor fiode Laser; 35. Michelson's dtellar interferometer; 36. Bracewell's interferometric telescope; 37. Scanning optical microscopy; 38. Zernike's approach to part distinction; 39. Polarization microscopy; forty. Nomarski's differential interference distinction microscope; forty-one. The Van Leeuwenhoek microscope; forty two. Projection photolithography; forty three. interplay of sunshine with subwavelength constructions; forty four The Ronchi try out; forty five. The Shack-Hartmann Wavefront sensor; forty six. Ellipsometry; forty seven. Holography and holographic interferometry; forty eight. Self-focusing in non-linear optical media; forty nine. Spatial optical solitons; 50. Laser-induced heating of multilayers; Index
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6NA objective lens. 95NA objective lens. 95NA lens. The higher-NA lens, capturing more of the high-frequency Fourier components of the object, yields a superior image. Both lenses, however, fail to reproduce the very fine features of the object. Appendix to Chapter 2: The stationary-phase approximation Consider the two-dimensional integral ZZ I¼ f ðx; yÞ exp½iggðx; yÞdx dy; ðA2:1Þ 43 2 Fourier optics where, in general, f(x, y) is a complex function, g(x, y) is a real function, g is a large real number, and the domain of integration is a subset of the XY-plane.
9. Here a plane wave propagating at angle h relative to the Z-axis enters the lens at its first principal plane. At the entrance pupil (which is assumed to coincide with the 1st principal plane) the ray heights are the same as those at the exit pupil, which is a spherical cap of radius f centered at the focal point F. A ray entering at height x1 has phase 2px1rx, which it retains as it emerges from the exit pupil. 9 Fourier transform lens having focal length f and aperture radius ra ¼ fNA. The incident plane wave makes an angle h with the Z-axis in the XZplane, that is, (rx, ry) ¼ (sin h, 0).
This is true irrespective of whether z0 is positive or negative; in other words, both forward and backward propagation can be treated by the same formalism. The reason that the wavelength k of the light does not appear in these equations is that all spatial coordinates are assumed to be normalized by k, that is, x, y, z0 are dimensionless quantities. Invoking the standard paraxial approximation, the above transfer function is replaced by exp(i2pz0) exp[Àipz0(r2x þ r2y)].