By Thucydides Xanthopoulos (auth.), Thucydides Xanthopoulos (eds.)
Clocking in glossy VLSI Systems covers quite a lot of matters concerning microprocessor clocking together with distribution, flop layout, inductive ideas, section noise and jitter, hold up lock suggestions, resiliency and different recommendations to deal with technique edition and actual layout elements. The ebook comprises rigorous analytical therapy for a couple of very important subject matters comparable to timing uncertainty due statistical spatial and temporal phenomena, metastability, jitter within the time and frequency area and supply-induced clock noise. It additionally encompasses a huge variety of layout examples and case stories, historical past info, a whole checklist of references and a couple of complicated subject matters. the themes coated mirror to a wide quantity the collective pursuits and foci of either and academia with appreciate to clocking. it's very updated and co-authored via a panel of specialists inquisitive about clock layout in significant processor chips.
Clocking in glossy VLSI Systems is authored from a powerful layout standpoint and may support readers drawn to clock layout receive the mandatory historical past details and instruments for this type of job. The publication additionally captures layout developments that experience seemed over the past few years and offers a finished record of references for extra study.
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Additional info for Clocking in modern VLSI systems
Centralized clock drivers with grids on three generations of the Alpha R microprocessor. Reproduced with permission from , c 1998 IEEE Fig. 32. Recombinant clock tiles on a 90nm processor. Reproduced with permission from , c 2003 IEEE 27 inversion stages and a total of 1,474 grid drivers (each driver is an inverter). An automated grid driver sizing flow was used to minimize grid driver oversizing for power efficiency. 32. A global skew of less than 10ps was achieved with this design. An example of centralized spines with delay-matched branches is the clock distribution of the 180nm Pentium R 4 processor 8 .
5. 3): Td−fast < Td−nominal < Td−slow . 1). Such two-sided constraints are not uncommon in modern design if the clock uncertainty is high. Central to the discussion above is the clock uncertainty defined by the absolute difference of delays TCk1 and TCk2 . 6). 6. This statistical distribution is attributed to various static or dynamic sources. For example, design mismatches and on-die process variations will result in static delay mismatches. g. PLL) jitter or dynamic voltage variations can introduce dynamic clock uncertainties.
Lipa, P. Franzon, and M. Steer, “Multi-gigahertz low-power lowskew rotary clock scheme,” in Digest of Technical Papers IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC 2001), 2001, pp. 400–401, 470.  F. O’Mahony, C. Yue, M. Horowitz, and S. Wong, “A 10-GHz global clock distribution using coupled standing-wave oscillators,” IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 1813–1820, Nov. 2003.  V. L. Chi, “Salphasic distribution of clock signals for synchronous systems,” IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol.