By Christopher Howgego, Volhker Heuchert, Andrew Burnett
Cash have been the main planned of all symbols of public communal identities, but the Roman historian will glance in useless for any stable creation to, or systematic therapy of, the topic. 16 top foreign students have sought to deal with this want through generating this authoritative number of essays, which levels over the total Roman international from Britain to Egypt, from 2 hundred BC to advert three hundred. the topic is approached via surveys of the wide geographical and chronological constitution of the facts, via chapters which specialise in methods of expressing id, and during local stories which position the numismatic facts in neighborhood context.
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Extra resources for Coinage and Identity in the Roman Provinces
On the complications of his (As)syrian identity see Elsner 2001. populations, the ongoing conflict between the Jewish and Greek communities known to us through the voluminous correspondence it produced over the years between city authorities, imperial governors, and the emperor himself. 24 Far from being the exception, individuals such as Lucian may even have been the norm. The spread of Roman identity seems to have been accompanied by the creation, or at least consolidation, of a range of other identities.
Conclusion The picture developed here is of a Roman empire which did develop a series of shared cultural values. Identities were often multiple and overlapping. Some shared in more Roman values than others; few if any were completely unaffected. Yet it is also a picture in which there were few who would describe themselves simply, and in all situations, as Roman. Most Romans could, and did, lay claim to a range of other identities, many of which only made sense in the sorts of local, non-literary settings for which our evidence is always limited.
Bowman and Rathbone 1992. 140 The only noticeable impact of the edict on coinage was the subsequent high frequency of the names of individuals beginning with the praenomen and nomen Marcus Aurelius, a demonstration that substantial numbers gained their citizenship under Caracalla. 137 141 Howgego 1995: 138–40. On the role of the elite in local coinage see Weiss, Chapter 4 below. 142 Building: Mitchell 1993: 89, 120–1. Epigraphy: Woolf 1996. 143 Note also the comments in the same vein by Williams and Butcher, Chapters 5 and 12 below.