By John Tienson (auth.), Terence Horgan, John Tienson (eds.)
This sequence will contain monographs and collections of experiences dedicated to the research and exploration of information, info and information processing platforms of every kind, regardless of no matter if human, (other) animal, or computing device. Its scope is meant to span the entire variety of pursuits from classical difficulties within the philosophy of brain and philosophical psychology via concerns in cognitive psychology and sociobiology (concerning the psychological functions of alternative species) to rules concerning synthetic intelligence and to machine technological know-how. whereas fundamental emphasis should be put upon theoretical, conceptual and epistemological elements of those difficulties and domain names, empirical, experimental and methodological stories also will seem now and then. probably the most, if now not the main, interesting advancements inside cognitive technological know-how has been the emergence of connectionism in its place to the computational notion of the brain that has a tendency to dominate the self-discipline. during this quantity, John Tienson and Terence Horgan have introduced jointly an excellent choice of stimulating experiences on connectionism and its importance. because the advent explains, the main urgent questions obstacle even if connectionism grants a brand new belief of the character of mentality. via concentrating on the similarities and ameliorations among connectionism and different techniques to cognitive technological know-how, the chapters of this e-book provide important assets that boost our figuring out of those tough concerns. J.H.F.
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Additional info for Connectionism and the Philosophy of Mind
The behavior of each node is determined only by its current state and its input. Nevertheless, connectionist systems can be interpreted to represent interesting content-analogous to the content of sentences or noun phrases--by their patterns of activated nodes, and as having stored (in the weights) knowledge that is not presently actively represented. Some units-"input" units--in a connectionist system get stimuli from outside the system. Others, "output" units are thought of as sending signals outside the system.
Although the adoption of a prototype theory of categories undercuts the idea that categorization is based upon simple rules specifying necessary and sufficient conditions, most psychologists who attempted to develop an account of mental representation to accommodate the prototype data still used a rule approach according to which subjects would judge the similarity of an object to a prototype on a variety of features and then apply rules to determine whether the object belonged to the category (for a review of this literature, see Smith and Medin, 1981).
In recent years, though, there has developed a relatively large psychological literature on concepts and categorization. Categorization is a 44 WILLIAM BECHTEL task comparable to pattern recognition in that it requires the ability to recognize similar items so as to classify them together. Within the rulebased framework it is natural to think of categorization being governed by rules that specify what characteristics something must have to belong to a category. , duck). This suggested that categories are not characterized in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions, as would be natural if categorization depended upon rules.