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WONG et al. 1983). The Immune Response to Influenza Infection 33 Lymphokine secretion is an important component of the DTH reaction, so the finding that effector T cells expressing this activity were present in the CsA-treated, infected mice but that their activity could not be elicited is not unexpected. 1 B Cells The persistence of serum antibody over decades and the occurrence of secondary antibody responses during successive influenza infections dictate that B-cell memory is long lasting.
The Immune Response to Influenza Infection 35 Whole-virus vaccines contain intact inactivated virus. Split-product vaccines are prepared from purified formalin-treated virus disrupted with chemicals to solubilize the viral envelope. The virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase may be isolated and purified to produce subunit vaccines. 1 Immunogenicity Sufficient data are now available to make an assessment of the immunogenicity of inactivated virus vaccines (POTTER 1982). In primed individuals, parenteral vaccination with either whole-virus or split-product vaccines results in a protective level of serum HI antibody in over 85% of recipients shortly after vaccination.
1983). Further evidence that IgG is protective has been inferred from the inverse relationship between transplacentally acquired antibody in infants and the frequency of influenza infection (PuCK et al. 1980). Maternally derived antibody in animal studies has also been shown to be protective though protection is mainly acquired during suckling (REDMAN et al. 1983; HUSSEINI et al. 1984). However, the protective effect of passively acquired antibody from immune mothers or in transfer experiments is limited to the lower respiratory tract, primarily the lung, in ferrets and mice - infection of the upper respiratory tract and trachea is not prevented.