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By Michel Onfray

Les Cyniques ? C'étaient, au IVe siècle avant l'ère chrétienne, des individus qui se réclamaient du chien, portaient barbe, besace et bâton, copulaient en public, faisaient du poisson masturbateur un modèle éthique et pratiquaient le jeu de mots en guise de méthodologie : là où d'aucuns font référence aux idées et aux théories absconses, ils opposaient le geste, l'humour et l'ironie. Leurs noms : Antisthène, Diogène, Cratès ou Hipparchia. Si Michel Onfray a choisi de les ressusciter ici, c'est parce que notre époque aurait beaucoup à apprendre d'eux : pour mieux mettre en péril les fondements de toute civilisation, ils invitent au cannibalisme, à l'omophagie, à l'inceste et au refus de toute sépulture. Leur matérialisme se double d'un souci hédoniste qui suggest un accès aristocratique à los angeles jouissance. En même temps, ils professent un athéisme radical doublé d'une impiété subversive et d'une pratique politique libertaire. Paradoxalement, en eating place l'actualité du cynisme philosophique, on proposera dans cet ouvrage une pharmacopée au cynisme vulgaire. Michel Onfray a publié dans los angeles même assortment le Ventre des philosophes.

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But it ought, even if it is placed on the eye itself, to be seen, which indeed happens. For when we glue our eye to the glass itself we see through it, but fearing that we may injure the eye by the contact, instinctively we cannot bear the contact but close our eyelids; so if we steel ourselves, keeping our eye intent, to bring it close to something transparent, we shall certainly see, as indeed the eye in contact with the air sees, and those who have dived down in water see the things in the depths, though their eyes are immediately in contact with the water.

Namely], because it [colour] is such as to change the transparent in act, and the transparent in act comes into being by the presence of light. 147 The reason why fire is seen not only in light but also in the dark, is that it has an illuminating activity capable of announcing its colour. 148 For the substance of fire is by nature such as to make the transparent in potentiality transparent in act. That is why we also see colours at night when there is fire. But he is not saying this, that this is why we see [sc.

107 But having said above that light is a colour without drawing further distinctions, here he further articulates his account and says that light is ‘as it were’ a colour of the transparent. Not a colour, but ‘as it were’ a colour. For that it is not [not]108 without qualification a colour of the transparent he indicated by adding ‘when it is in actuality’. For it [the transparent] is always transparent, but it does not always have light. So it is not present in its nature as a colour of the transparent,109 but it is as it were a colour by analogy.

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