By Haifeng Yu
Fresh development during this box exhibits that integrating photochromic molecules into LC fabrics permits one to photo-manipulate distinctive beneficial properties corresponding to photoinduced section transition, photocontrolled alignment and phototriggered molecular cooperative movement, resulting in their novel purposes past monitors. This ebook introduces readers to this box, from the first- to the complicated point in photoresponsive LC fabrics. the topic is brought step by step, together with the elemental wisdom of LCs, photoresponsive houses of LCs, and their specific performances within the type of low-molecu. �Read more...
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Additional info for Dancing with Light : Advances in Photofunctional Liquid-Crystalline Materials
As shown in Fig. 21, the first is called enantiotropic LCs where the LC phase can be obtained from either lowering the temperature of a liquid or raising the temperature of a solid. The second is monotropic LCs, which is an irreversible process where the LC phase can only be reached from one direction (upon cooling) in the thermal cycle. 21 One typical DSC curve (above) of LC materials and two kinds of thermotropic LCs results from DSC measurement (below). 23 24 Introduction In a DSC trace of a crystalline or LC materials, there is normally a temperature displacement in the formation of a crystalline phase or a mesophase in the cooling cycle as compared with a heating cycle.
16. 15 LCPs with diverse macromolecular architectures. Introduction of a chiral center into an LC molecule may bring about interesting properties. As shown in Fig. 17, 5CB is a typical nematic LC (Fig. 3), but a chiral nematic (or cholesteric) LC phase is obtained when a chiral molecule is present. Similarly, chiral smectic A (or ferroelectric) LCs can be achieved by this way. Another method to endow LCs with chirality is doping or mixing chiral molecules into non-chiral LCs. In some cases, non-chiral molecules are capable of forming chiral LC phases.
LCs have mechanical properties of liquids: high fluidity, inability to support shear, and formation of droplets. However, one of the most important properties of LC is anisotropy in optical, electrical, magnetic, and possibly in mechanical properties. 1 Order Parameter The structure of LC phases is usually characterized by a “socalled” director (n), which is a unit vector, showing an average orientation of the molecular axes in some macroscopic bulk. The amount of orientational order in LCs can be obtained by averaging macroscopically molecular orientation with respect to this direction.