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By Immanuel Kant

De ses cours de " psychologie rationnelle " jusqu'à ses réflexions sur les phénomènes psychosomatiques, Kant n'a cessé de s'interroger sur les rapports entre corps et âme, ou entre corps et esprit. Rompant avec les interrogations métaphysiques classiques, il discover plusieurs voies originales dont celle d'une " médecine philosophique du corps " qui permettrait de soigner le corps par l'esprit. Kant explora longuement ce dernier domaine, comme en témoignent, outre son discussion avec le docteur Hufeland, fondateur de l. a. macrobiotique, plusieurs textes pour los angeles première fois traduits en français, dont " los angeles médecine du corps qui est du ressort des philosophes " et le " Manuscrit sur l. a. diététique ". Les " Réflexions sur l'inoculation " portent quant à elle sur le caractère ethical de cet ancêtre de los angeles vaccination. Description des maladies des gens de lettres, analyses de l. a. folie et de l'hypocondrie, prescription de régimes philosophiques... Ces écrits font apparaître un pan méconnu de los angeles philosophie de Kant : une diététique philosophique propre à former le sujet éthique, pour ainsi dire des exercices corporels de philosophie moderne.

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Stages 2 and 3 bring us back to earth, by first proposing as prosaic and simple an example as possible, and then pointing out its limitations. Still, the method of three-stage argument can only get us so far. Replying to Socrates with a list of different kinds of knowledge, or to the denotationalist with a list of different uses of words, may be a first step towards being suspicious of the idea that we must be able to give a unitary specification of knowledge, naming, or the use of words. On the other hand, a Socratic philosopher will reply that the only thing wrong with such theories is that they need refining.

So while Ogden’s first use of ‘proposition’ is unproblematic, it is potentially misleading to talk about the metaphysician’s ‘propositions’. Seeing the Investigations in the right light 33 On the other hand, the rest of the book appears to be advocating any number of distinctive and debatable philosophical doctrines. Because the book – or the part of the book that the frame surrounds – does appear to be full of arguments for philosophical doctrines, few readers have taken the book’s opening and closing instructions at face value.

255. The philosopher treats a question; like an illness. (§§254–5∗ ) If we follow the author’s advice, rather than those of the protagonists in his dialogues, we will give up both behaviourism and antibehaviourism. The result of his discussion of philosophical problems is not supposed to be an endorsement of one of the views he discusses; rather, ‘a combination of words is being excluded from the language, withdrawn from circulation’ (§500). Nevertheless, in order to ‘turn something that isn’t obviously nonsense’ – such as the initial expression of a philosophical account of meaning we find in §1 – ‘into obvious nonsense’ (§464∗ ; cf.

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