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By Ivan Švancara

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0 mL [2,3,59,69,82,83,111]. Some mixtures contain even a higher percentage of liquid binder since the resultant ratio of the two main components depends also on their mutual adherence [177,205]. Thus, for example, 1 g of graphite may “swallow” up to 7 mL pasting liquid, which is the case of the very first paste mixture [1]. Note: Appropriate consistency can also be a virtual measure of how to adjust the optimal carbonto-binder ratio; however, one should be aware that the resultant pastes may vary quite much—they can be finely thick, but they can also be rather hard or soft or even sticky [2,3,83,111].

2 “Solid,” “Solid-like,” and “Pseudo” Carbon Paste Electrodes It is not surprising that the growing diversity of carbon pastes has also motivated numerous scientists to prepare, test, and popularize further related mixtures, in which the traditional oils were replaced by alternate binders. Many of the resultant electrode substrates had exhibited consistency markedly thicker than that of classical CPEs (being like peanut butter as specified by Adams [2]), giving rise to the terms used as headline of this section.

Mainly, however, these pastes were found extremely aggressive toward to the electrode bodies used for their housing, in that case a less resistant plastic material (Silon®) having been totally destroyed in few hours of use [188]. 5 Other Pasting Liquids and Mixed Binders Occasional use of atypical pasting liquids can be documented on mixtures made of (i) TCP [205,207]), (ii) dioctyl phthalate (DOP; [205,207,208]), or (iii) di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DINP; [232]). Due to a chemical activity of these binders exhibiting noticeable ion-exchanging capabilities, the resultant CPEs can be classified to be a transient element between unmodified and modified carbon pastes [75,84].

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