By Michael C. Flickinger, Stephen W. Drew
Encyclopedias composed of: The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, the Encyclopedia of Bioprocess expertise: Fermentation, Biocatalysis, and Bioseparation, the Encyclopedia of mobile expertise, and the Encyclopedia of moral, criminal, and coverage matters in Biotechnology, delivering wide insurance of 4 significant modern topics during this box. DLC: Biochemical engineering--Encyclopedias.
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Extra info for Encyclopedia of Bioprocess Technology
4. 4 Log of the relative rate constants of anhydride formation krel from mono-p-bromophenyl esters vs. the log of the probability (P) of NAC formation of each monophenyl ester of the various dicarboxylic acids (Bruice, 2000). 1 Basic Performance Criteria for a Catalyst: Activity, Selectivity and Stability of Enzymes Every catalyst, and thus also every biocatalyst, can be characterized by the three basic dimensions of merit, namely activity, selectivity, and stability. 3. 1. Biocatalysts often feature much better selectivity than non-biological catalysts, so they are developed for use because of their selectivity, be it enantioselectivity, chemo- or regioselectivity.
E. , depending on whether one is evaluating either the reaction itself or a reaction product. 2) are also important issues of enzymatic reaction selectivity. 3 Stability Stability of an enzyme is usually understood to mean temperature stability, although inhibitors, oxygen, an unsuitable pH value, or other factors such as mechanical stress or shear can decisively influence stability (Chapter 17). 2). The melting temperature of a protein is influenced on one hand by its amino acid sequence and the number of disulfide bridges and salt pairs, and on the other hand by solvent, added salt type, and added salt concentration.
In many cases, such as high-fructose corn syrup, or biotechnology and biocatalysis offer technology options and solutions that are not available through any other technology; in such situations such as acrylamide, nicotinamide or intermediates for antibiotics, biotechnology and biocatalysis act as “enabling technologies”. In the remaining situations, biotechnology and biocatalysis offer one solution among several others, which all have to be evaluated according to criteria developed in Chapter 2: yield to product, selectivity, productivity, (bio)catalyst stability, and space–time-yield.