Download (Endo)symbiotic Methanogenic Archaea by Tom Fenchel, Bland J. Finlay (auth.), Johannes H.P. PDF

By Tom Fenchel, Bland J. Finlay (auth.), Johannes H.P. Hackstein (eds.)

Methanogens are prokaryotic microorganisms that produce methane as an end-product of a posh biochemical pathway. they're strictly anaerobic archaea and occupy a large choice of anoxic environments. Methanogens additionally thrive within the cytoplasm of anaerobic unicellular eukaryotes and within the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and people. The symbiotic methanogens within the gastrointestinal tracts of ruminants and different “methanogenic” mammals give a contribution considerably to the worldwide methane price range; in particular the rumen hosts a powerful range of methanogens. This monograph offers with methanogenic endosymbionts of anaerobic protists, particularly ciliates and termite flagellates, and with methanogens within the gastrointestinal tracts of vertebrates and arthropods. extra experiences talk about the genomic outcomes of dwelling jointly in symbiotic institutions, the function of methanogens in syntrophic degradation, and the functionality and evolution of hydrogenosomes, hydrogen-producing organelles of yes anaerobic protists.

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50 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Abstract Trimyema ciliates thrive in various anoxic environments in which they prey on bacteria and grow with fermentative metabolisms. Like many anaerobic protozoa, instead of mitochondria, Trimyema possess hydrogenosomes, which are hydrogen-producing, energy-generating organelles characteristic of anaerobic protozoa and fungi.

A range of methanogenic archaeal 16S rDNA, representing Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales, has been detected as ciliate-associated methanogens. However, it is still difficult to draw a conclusion about a potentially specific interaction between a particular ciliate species and a species of methanogenic archaea from these limited studies. K. P. 1007/978-3-642-13615-3_3, # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010 25 26 K. Ushida 1 The Rumen and Ciliated Protozoa The rumen has a great capacity to digest plant polymers with the aid of anaerobic microbiota (Hungate 1966).

2008a) presented a speculative metabolic scheme of carbohydrate degradation pathway in Trimyema (Fig. 3). In this scheme, pyruvate:formate lyase (PFL) is hypothesized to be involved in pyruvate metabolism since formate production has been found in T. compressum cultures. This type of carbohydrate metabolism resembles that of some anaerobic chytridiomycete fungi (Boxma et al. 2004; Hackstein et al. 2008b). Within anaerobic ciliates, the hydrogenosomes of Dasytricha ruminantium and Nyctotherus ovalis living in the rumen and hindgut of the cockroach, respectively, have been extensively studied.

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