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By Stuart Hogg

Essential Microbiology is a complete introductory textual content aimed toward scholars taking a primary path within the subject. Covering all features of microbiology, it describes the constitution and serve as of microbes earlier than contemplating their position within the the residing world.  the second one half the booklet specializes in utilized features comparable to genetic engineering, business microbiology and the regulate of microorganisms.

Adopting a latest procedure and with wide use of transparent complete diagrams, Essential Microbiology explains key themes by using definition bins and finish of bankruptcy questions.

This publication is invaluable for undergraduate scholars within the organic, nutrition and wellbeing and fitness sciences taking a primary direction in Microbiology.

  • comprehensive creation overlaying all elements of this fascinating subject.
  • includes a variety of examples and functions from a variety of fields.
  • definition bins, key issues and self-test questions improve scholar understanding.

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Additional resources for Essential Microbiology

Sample text

Triple bonding, through the sharing of three pairs of electrons, is also possible, but rare. 6a). This has the effect of making one atom slightly negative and another slightly positive. Molecules like this are called polar molecules and the bonds are polar bonds. Sometimes a large molecule may have both polar and nonpolar areas. 5 Double bond formation. In the formation of carbon dioxide, the carbon atom shares two pairs of electrons with each oxygen atom. 6 Water is a polar molecule. (a) The electrons of the hydrogen atoms are strongly attracted to the oxygen atom, causing this part of the water molecule to carry a slightly negative charge, and the hydrogen part a slightly positive one.

A) The basic structure of an amino acid. (b) In solution, the amino and carboxyl groups become ionised, giving rise to a zwitterion (a molecule with spatially separated positive and negative charges). 13). 4 35 Amino acid shorthand It is sometimes necessary to express in print the sequence of amino acids that make up the primary structure of a particular protein; clearly it would be desperately tedious to express a sequence of hundreds of bases in the form ‘glycine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, methionine, .

It comprises a central carbon atom (known as the α-carbon) covalently bonded to an amino (NH2 ) group, a carboxyl (COOH) group and a hydrogen atom. It is the group attached to the fourth and final valency bond of the α-carbon that varies from one amino acid to another; this is known as the ‘R’-group. The 20 amino acids found in proteins can be conveniently divided into five groups, on the basis of the chemical nature of their ‘R’-group. 13). It is unlikely nowadays that you would need to memorise the precise structure of all 20 as the author was asked to do in days gone by, but it would be advisable to familiarise yourself with the groupings and examples from each of them.

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