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By Donald J. Johnston

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This has taken the form of measures aimed at better distinguishing between funding and delivery of social protection; use of management techniques and procedures typical of the private sector within public programmes; tax allowances for clients and donations; and deregulation aimed at allowing new agencies to access sectors previously dominated by public monopolies. Reforms have also aimed to enhance the role of civil society, mobilise resources outside the public sector, clarify the responsibilities of different levels of government and improve co-ordination between agencies.

Benefit recipients nearly stopped, with increases in the first part of the decade followed by declines in the second: when excluding the Slovak Republic, around 80% of the average (across countries) increase in benefit dependency rates recorded since 1980 occurred in the 1980-90 period. 2. THE NEED FOR MORE ACTIVE SOCIAL POLICIES 3. Changes in the context of social policies The concentration of social protection on the elderly has reflected a particular distribution of social risks among the population.

Finally, any transition from existing pay-as-you-go pension systems to fully-funded ones implies a “double burden” for current workers – who have to finance pension benefits for the current generation of retirees and build up assets for their own retirement. Theoretical objections also relate to the very nature of the markets in question, which may make private provision of social protection unsuitable in some cases. 3. BROADENING ROLES FOR SOCIAL PROTECTION ● Social protection (or at least, some elements of it) has the characteristics of a public good: the service purchased may deliver more benefits than those accruing to the person consuming it.

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