By Khalid Khayati.
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Additional resources for From victim diaspora to transborder citizenship? : diaspora formation and transnational relations among kurds in France and Sweden
The third constitutive element of diaspora is boundary maintenance. This concept, which Brubaker borrows from J. Armstrong (1976), involves the preservation of a distinctive identity that is upheld by a distinctive, active solidarity as well as by relatively close social relationships that cross the borders of states and link members of a diaspora in different states to a single “transnational community”. The author says that the boundaries can be maintained by deliberate resistance to assimilation, for example through the practice of endogamy or other forms of self-segregation or as an unintended consequence of social exclusion (Brubaker 2005: 6).
In other words, it is at this crossroads of macro- and micro-sociological levels that individuals, through aggregating their wills and actions, generate political influence to be exerted on the domestic spaces of the society as well as on international relations. Meanwhile, the author affirms that the decisions and actions of individual are in point of fact conditioned by macro-sociological factors (Rosenau 1990; 1994). However, the multi-stranded political and social relations that refugees and immigrants sustain between their homelands of origin and their country of settlement are forged by the process of transnational migration, which is an allusion to the fact that current-day immigrants construct and reconstitute their simultaneous embeddedness in more than one society (Rosenau 1990; 1994).
Burton has introduced the concept of the “world society”: an attempt to depict an 25 “unprecedented impulsion”, which has materialized under the effects of technological developments and the growth of international exchanges and transactions (Burton 1972). Further, it was an effort to stress that international politics was no longer an issue solely and exclusively of relationships between and among sovereign political entities: an interstate connection which was visualized through the metaphor of “billiard balls”.