By E.T. Turkdogan
Supplies engineers, learn scientists and graduate scholars a transparent realizing of the operation and keep an eye on of the pyrometallurgical approach. it's going to even be worthwhile for technical education classes given to metal plant engineers and plant operators.
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Additional info for Fundamentals of steel making
1990, 21B, 1013. CHAPTER 2 Rate Phenomena There are many different facets of rate phenomena involving homogeneous or heterogeneous chemical reactions, mass transfer via atomic or molecular diffusional processes, viscous flow, thermal and electrical conduction and so on. In high temperature processes as in pyrometallurgy, the rates of interfacial chemical reactions are in general much faster than the rates of transfer of the reactants and reaction products to and from the reaction site. The formulations of rate equations for transport controlled reactions vary considerably with the physical properties and type of fluid flow over the surface of the reacting condensed phase.
Am. Ceram. , 1957, 40, 121. 14. 1. W. CRAMB,Iron Steel Inst. Japan, International, 1992, 32, 26. 15. A. KASAMA, A. A. MILLER, Z. J. WARD, Can. Met. , 1983, 22, 9. 16. I. LANGMUIR, J. Am. Chern. , 1916, 38, 2221; 1918, 40, 1361. 17. G. P. LUPIS, Surf. , 1974, 42, 61. 18. R. BELTON,Metall. Trans. B, 1976, B7, 35. 19. T. M. R. TAYLOR, in '3rd International Conference on molten slags and fluxes', p. 246. The Institute of Metals, London, 1989. T. THOMPSON, G. W. D. PELTON,in 'Computerized metallurgical databases symposium', p.
In iron oxides, the diffusivity of iron is greater than the oxygen diffusivity. The rate of oxidation is controlled primarily by diffusion of iron through the wustite layer from the ironwustite interface to the wustite-gas or wustite-magnetite interface, then through the thin layers of magnetite and haematite. The flux of iron through the wustite layer is by Fick's first law where D is the iron diffusivity, C the concentration of Fe in wustite and X the thickness of the wustite layer. 34) where C' and C" are the iron concentrations in the oxide at the ironwustite and wustite-gas (or magnetite) interfaces respectively.