By Konstantin Nossov, Konstantin S Nossov, Brian Delf
Sandwiched among the center of historical Greece and the lands of Persia, the Greek towns of Western Anatolia have been the spark that ignited probably the most iconic conflicts of the traditional international. Fought over many times within the fifth century BC, their conquest via the Persians supplied a casus belli for Alexander the nice to move the Hellespont in 334 BC and release the conflict of Granicus and the sieges of Miletus and Halicarnassus. a mix of Greek and Asian types of army structure, those fortified towns have been innovative of their multi-linear building - successive shielding partitions - with loopholes and mural arches. Konstantin Nossov illustrates the evolution of Greek fortifications and the impacts of the quarter they bordered during this attention-grabbing research.
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Additional info for Greek Fortifications Of Asia Minor 500-130 B
The Lydians were inexperienced in assailing fortifications and unprepared to lay down a long-lasting blockade of the cities. The same century witnessed the Cimmerians invading Greek coastal cities in Asia Minor. Ephesus was besieged and Magnesia on the Maeander was even destroyed, but, on the whole, these were bold forays, not proper subjugation; after sacking a city, the Cimmerians would withdraw. Faced with a threat of repeated Lydian and Cimmerian incursion, the Greeks had to restore their fortifications or replace them with more powerful ones in some places.
However, the Greeks wished to see beautiful tooled faced masonry, which prevented this kind of masonry from becoming predominant. Artillery towers of the second generation, which appeared after c. 325 B C , were generally bigger (their ground area was often over 1 0 0 m ) , thicker walled, had bigger windows, and their masonry was often very elaborate. These towers could be found at Cnidus, Ephesus, and Heracleia on Latmus. Towards the late 4th century B C the defence of fortresses became active.
Lm-long slits. Strange as it may seem, the slits do not widen out much towards the interior, thus allowing a very limited field of fire. The third type of curtain also differs only in its lower part. Here the ground floor was solid and c. 3m wide. Three upper courses of eaves overhang at the rear to make the lower wall-walk broader. Slits in the lower part of a curtain of this type are much rarer than in the previous types. A section of a curtain backed by arches at Side. A lower wall-walk was emplaced on top of the arches.