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By Vladilen S. Letokhov

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3) The exponents in Eq. 2) differ greatly. 18. The coefficients in Eq. 2) can also be obtained with WJWl2 = 2. --! 4) A maximum rate for two-step photoionization or a minimum value for T{ can be obtained with W2 = 2Wl2 . Hence, the conversion of each excited atom into an ion will be optimal under the following conditions: (1) Negligible relaxation of atoms from excited states: W ,W »\/T . 5) 12 { 12 (2) Matching of the excitation and ionization rates: W{ G2{ 12 2W12 2 < t 1/ 2 1 = 1 or I2/It = 2 ( 7 1/ <27 2.

In this case, the description of the interaction of a field with a two-level system becomes very complicated. In particular, there is no longer any simple and graphic picture of the particle's Rabi-frequency oscillations between the two levels. There are instead the particle's oscillations between individual sublevels with frequencies of their own, which combine to smooth out the oscillations of the net level populations. 30 2. RESONANT EXCITATION OF HIGH-LYING STATES However, in the case of incoherent interaction, the picture looks simpler, for there are no level population oscillations at all.

41 TWO-PHOTON RESONANT EXCITATION equations have the following simple form: — ^10 2 «21 10 21 <»io - o ) 21 fli = % o i « 0e x p ( i™ . 79) e x 0»21 - 2 where co21 = (E2 - EJ/h, co10 = ( ^ i ~ E0)/h, y01 = (ju 0 * 2 y t'/ sin 7oi + 72o 2 i 12l +/ 8d t. 80) Here S is the detuning of the field frequency Q from resonance with the intermediate level: )/2 d = (a>21- coi0 = Q - col0 .

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