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By B. Rubin

No state on this planet has extra political battles, army conflicts, and ethnic complexity in keeping with individual and in step with sq. mile than does Lebanon. regularly for 50 years, it has visible challenge after situation, usually drawing in direct U.S. and foreign involvement. such a lot lately, Lebanon has been the scene of a civil struggle, wars with Israel, a favored mass flow that expelled Syrian career, terror, hostage-taking, assassination, and the fight among allies of Iran and the West. This e-book explains the problems, occasions, and personalities excited about one of many globe’s such a lot dramatic and critical tales.

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In theory, they can be downscaled in favor of representative constructs that are simpler, more unifying, and less riddled with patron/client dependencies than confessional democracy. Yet communal identities are much older and stronger than Arabist intellectuals would have it. At best, Lebanon is stuck with a long transition. Lebanon cannot be reformed as a nation-state—or even guard the existing pluralism, which is itself effortlessly superior to anything else in the Arab world—if the forces hostile to Lebanon as a nation-state win the present conflict.

Tauris, 2003), p. 31. 19. , p. 33. This page intentionally left blank 3 L E B A N O N ’S M I L I T I A W A R S Tony Badran Lebanon’s civil war has been one of the most complex, multifaceted wars of modern times due to its hybrid nature, multiple participants (both state and non-state actors), and its impact on regional, and even global balances of power. The goal of this chapter is to identify the principal combatants during the various stages of the war, their equipment, and tactics, with an emphasis on urban warfare and military operations in built-up areas.

The united military body was called the “Lebanese Forces” and comprised the Phalangists, the “Tigers” of the National Liberals Party, al-Tanzim (the “organization”), and the Guardians of the Cedars. The Phalangists made up the military backbone of the LF, and although each militia had two representatives in the joint command, the LF were clearly 38 TON Y B A DR A N dominated by Bashir Gemayel, son of Phalangist leader Pierre Gemayel. 10 The largest and most organized of the Lebanese Christian parties were the Phalanges.

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