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By Ramesh C. Ray

Plant genetic engineering has revolutionized our skill to provide genetically more suitable plant forms. a wide element of our significant vegetation have passed through genetic development by using recombinant DNA options within which microorganisms play an important function. The cross-kingdom move of genes to include novel phenotypes into vegetation has applied microbes at each step-from cloning and characterization of a gene to the creation of a genetically engineered plant. This publication covers the $64000 elements of Microbial Biotechnology in Agriculture and Aquaculture with and target to enhance crop yield.

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Biotechnol. 15: 132-138. A. E. (2002). Function and diversity in arbuscular mycorrhizas. ) M. R. Sanders. Springer Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 75-92. James, C. Global Status of Commercialized Transgenic Crops. ISAAA, Metro Manila, Philippines. , Cascales, E. J. (2004). Agrobacterium turnefaciens VirB6 domains direct the ordered export of a DNA substrate through a Type IV secretion system. J. Mol. Biol. 341: 961-977. , Lam, E. F. (1997). Inactivation of the Arabidopsis AGL5 MADS-box gene by homologous recombination.

PREPARATION AND SYNTHESIS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS (GMOs) Generally, there are two main approaches for GMOs synthesis: the one utilizing bacterial (usually Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and viral vectors (Minocha and Page, Chapter 1 in this Volume) and the other utilizing either chemical or physical methods to introduce specific genes into the target cells. The first one, the gene transfer by the bacterium, A. tumefaciens has been dealt within Chapter 1; hence not discussed here. The viral gene transfer is a viral-mediated process referred to as an infection.

Genome-wide insertional mutagenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana. Science 301: 653-657. Azpiroz-Leehan, R. A. (1997). T-DNA insertion mutagenesis in Arabidopsis: going back and forth. Trends Genet. 13: 152-156. E. and Shachar-Hill, Y. (2000). Carbon metabolism and transport in arbuscular mycorrhizas. Plant Physiol. 124: 949-957. J. and Shachar-Hill, Y. (2003). Carbon export from arbuscular mycorrhizal roots involves the translocation of carbohydrate as well as lipid. Plant Physiol. 131: 1496-1507. , Ellis J.

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