By Wright F. E.
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Additional resources for Polarization of Light Reflected from Rough Surfaces with Special Reference to Light Reflected by the Moon
1) are indicated by the open circles. Values for ωmax were taken from [35, 47, 48].
Realization of solid-state laser cooling in the mid-1990s coincided with an intense effort in academia and industry to develop and commercialize ultra-low-loss ﬂuoride glass ﬁbers for long-haul ﬁber-optic telecommunications. The focus was on heavy metal ﬂuoride glasses (HMFG), and ZBLAN (ZrF4 -BaF2 LaF3 -AlF3 -NaF) glass in particular. 5 µm). The ﬁeld was fueled by the prospect of realizing transoceanic ﬂuoride ﬁber-optic links without the need for signal ampliﬁcation, which is not possible with silica ﬁbers.
No net cooling was achieved, despite the realization of an impressive external quantum efﬁciency of 96% in GaAs. These experiments used a highquality GaAs heterostructure that was optically contacted with a ZnSe dome structure for enhanced luminescence extraction. A report of local cooling in AlGaAs quantum wells by a European consortium  was later attributed to misinterpretation of spectra caused by Coulomb screening of the excitons . 8b displays anti-Stokes luminescence in a GaAs heterostructure, where excitation at λ = 890 nm produces broadband luminescence with a mean wavelength of λf W 860 nm.