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By Kemal H. Karpat

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Extra info for Studies on Turkish Politics and Society: Selected Articles and Essays (Social, Economic and Political Studies of the Middle East and Asia)

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10 Nevertheless, the economic activity in the rural areas, spurred by intensified communication through an excellent road programme, water projects and a variety of other works, and further enhanced through the abolition of controls and intense political activity left their impact on the peasantry. 11 Many of them migrated to the cities in search for better fortune and caused there a wide range of social and political problems. The economic development which had started under rather auspicious conditions created a measure of welfare which was reflected in the national elections of 1954.

1 million in 1991. 26 After the MP and TPP coalition fell apart, the TPP joined a coalition under the premiership of Erbakan, which exposed the weakness of the Turkish system. The leaders of practically all the political parties, lacking the necessary intellectual weight to cope with Turkey’s many problems, covered their incompetence by personally dominating the party and firing their critics. The democracy of Turkey thus was left to political parties under dictatorial control. Soon after becoming premier, Erbakan installed his men in key positions and took trips to the major Islamic countries.

35 The adoption and the maintenance of the parliamentary democracy in 1945–50 was one of these major occasions. It developed not so much as the result of a commitment to lofty political principles but mainly as the outcome of a calculated decision to find a practical political solution likely to soothe and eventually to quell the rising social, economic and cultural discontent. It might have been intended as a ‘safety valve’, as Professor Bernard Lewis put it aptly, but when it worked out it was wholly adopted.

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