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The MSC is also responsible for the supplementary services, call forwarding and charging. To support the MSC with the switching and services, it is connected to supporting network elements; VLR, HLR, EIR and AUC are connected. Home Location Register The home location register (HLR) is a large database that contains information about the service profile and current location (VLR address) of the subscribers (SIMs) belonging to the network registered on the particular HLR. Visitor Location Register The visitor location register (VLR) is, like the HLR, a database; it contains information about all the mobiles (SIMs) currently camped on the network serviced by the MSC.

Distance, to limit the cell range. Speed of mobiles. Traffic, to distribute load among cells. Maintenance – you can empty a cell by network command. Intracell Handover If the Rx-Qual is bad but no adjacent cells with higher received signal level are detected and reported by the mobile, the network may initiate an intracell handover, assigning a new TSL or a new radio channel on the same cell. This can improve the quality of the call if interference hits the used time slot or frequency. Level-triggered Handover Preset margins for Rx-Level can be set to trigger a handover level.

If the receiver only measures the noise power generated by the base station itself, the network assumes that there is no traffic in the cell/adjacent cells. The network assumes the load rate to be zero and that the cell has its full potential for servicing new traffic. Using this noise measurement (including the hardware noise reference of the node B), the network can evaluate if the new admitted traffic will cause a noise increase that exceeds the predefined maximum UL noise increase in the cell, and the base station will keep admitting new traffic in the cell until the max noise rise is predicted or measured.

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