Download Water in Crystalline Hydrates Aqueous Solutions of Simple by F. Franks (auth.), Felix Franks (eds.) PDF

By F. Franks (auth.), Felix Franks (eds.)

vi the knowledge amassed and mentioned during this quantity can help towards the fulfillment of such an target. I may still wish to exhibit my debt of gratitude to the authors who've contributed to this quantity. enhancing a piece of this nature can pressure lengthy­ validated own relationships and that i thank my a variety of colleagues for bearing with me and responding (sooner or later) to 1 or a number of letters or cell calls. My distinctive thank you once more visit Mrs. Joyce Johnson, who bore the most brunt of this probably unending correspondence and with no whose aid the editorial and referencing paintings may have taken numerous years. F. FRANKS Biophysics department Unilever examine Laboratory Colworth/ Welwyn Colworth condominium, Sharnbrook, Bedford January, 1973 Contents Contents of quantity 1 ............................. . . . . . .. . . .. xv Contents of quantity three ........................ '. . . . . . . . . . . . xvi . . . . Contents of quantity four . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . xvii . . . . . . . . . . . bankruptcy 1 The Solvent houses of Water F. Franks 1. Water, the common Solvent-the examine of Aqueous options 2. Aqueous suggestions of Nonelectrolytes ................. . five 2.1. Apolar Solutes ................................. . 6 2.2. Polar Solutes .................................. . 19 2.3. Ionic Solutes Containing Alkyl Residues-"Apolar Electrolytes" ................................... . 38 three. Aqueous strategies of Electrolytes .................... . forty two 3.1. unmarried Ion houses ............................ . forty two 3.2. Ion-Water Interactions ......................... . forty three 3.3. Interionic results ............................... . forty seven four. complicated Aqueous combinations forty eight bankruptcy 2 Water in Stoichiometric Hydrates M. Falk and O. Knop 1. advent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fifty five . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Symmetry and kinds of atmosphere of the H0 Molecule 2 in Crystals .......................................... fifty seven vii Contents viii 2.1. website Symmetry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fifty seven . . . . . . . . . .

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Extra info for Water in Crystalline Hydrates Aqueous Solutions of Simple Nonelectrolytes

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Unfortunately, not many X-ray diffraction and scattering studies have yet been undertaken on aqueous solutions, so that direct evidence for "structures" is limited. However, it has been shown that the observed diffraction pattern of water-ethanol mixtures differs considerably from that expected for a simple mixture in which the ethanol dilutes the water and destroys its long-range order. (276) It is clearly shown in Fig. J ILl a: o 0·5 x2 1·0 Fig. 5. Intensities of X-ray diffraction peaks observed for water-ethanol and water-dioxan mixtures.

Another technique which has been applied to the study of aqueous solutions is that of ultrasound attenuation. A considerable amount of data has been accumulated and is discussed in Chapter 9. Like the X-ray scattering experiments, ultrasound absorption results clearly show marked qualitative differences in the behavior of dilute and concentrated aqueous * D. Atkinson, unpublished work at this Laboratory. Chapter 1 24 10 8 6 56° II MOLE 0/0 ----27° S° > I- ~ 1&1 2 ~ ~ I- 10 j 8 1&1 a: 6 4 001 002 004 SCATTERING ANGLE, RAD.

Tait et al. (1275) The Solvent Properties of Water 37 largely disappeared in liquid water). Thus it would follow that hydrophilic solutes can inherently be water structure promoters or breakers, depending upon the detailed stereochemistry of the solute molecule. It is interesting to note(l253) that the thermodynamically derived hydration numbers are in good agreement with the hydration numbers calculated from relaxation studies for glucose but have been found to be incompatible with excess heat and volume data for sucrose solutions.

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